Ultimately, trade negotiations and international trade institutions need to focus much more on improving worker power and environmental standards; These priorities should not be left to national institutions alone.31 In a world of open and interconnected markets at the global level, firms against workers can represent a credible risk of job relocation abroad. That is why trade policy must counter downward pressure from the bottom down on labour and environmental standards. Monitoring and accountability by independent observers, as well as powerful instruments at the border, are essential for effective implementation in these areas.32 The main questions are: in July, the United States eliminated India`s trade advantages under the generalized preference system, representing about $5.6 billion in exports. , amid disputes over India`s new digital trade restrictions and alleged barriers to trade in medical devices and other U.S. products. Here is a list of the free trade agreements that include the United States. In parentheses, the abbreviation, if any, membership, unless indicated in advance, and the date of entry into force. Among the top priorities widely identified by the United States in trade negotiations with China are improved market access for Western companies and enhanced intellectual property protection. They also include structural reforms to end the Chinese government`s use of anti-competitive regulations, subsidies and joint ventures, to force technology transfers and, moreover, to manipulate competition in favour of preferred, often public or controlled companies.14 The United States has also made Chinese commitments to purchase U.S.
products. , especially raw materials. In the meantime, strong environmental and labour standards and the application of available reports are not functionally present in the negotiations.15 And all this is done with little effort to ensure the support of allies. Detailed descriptions and texts of many U.S. trade agreements can be accessed through the Left Resource Center. Meanwhile, specific intellectual property rules within the USMCA limit the monopoly power of companies and limit the ability of national democratic processes to demand changes of public interest, such as better access to prescription drugs at an affordable price.