For example, Acme Coal Co. imports coal. Energen Inc. provides energy to consumers. Both companies agreed to build a power plant to achieve their respective objectives. As a general rule, the first step would be to sign a Memorandum of Understanding that would set out the intentions of both parties. This would be followed by an agreement on the creation of a joint venture. Banks, credit card issuers and other lenders sometimes lend to people who are unable to repay or who do not want to repay. Instead of simply amortizing these loans, creditors can sell the debts to a company that specializes in recovering as much money as possible. A cash flow agreement is a kind of contract between a debt buyer and a lender. Identifying and allocating risks is an important part of project funding.
A project may face a number of technical, environmental, economic and political risks, particularly in developing and emerging countries. Financial institutions and project proponents may conclude that the risks associated with the development and operation of the project are unacceptable (unfinanable). “Several long-term contracts, such as construction, procurement, equity and concession contracts, as well as a large number of joint ownership structures, are used to coordinate incentives and discourage opportunistic behaviour by any party involved in the project.  Implementation models are sometimes referred to as “project preparation methods.” Funding for these projects must be distributed among several parties in order to spread the risk associated with the project while ensuring benefits for each party concerned. In designing these risk allocation mechanisms, it is more difficult to address the infrastructure risks posed by developing countries` markets, as their markets are more risky.  Investopedia defines offtake agreements as contracts between the producers of a resource, in the case of project financing, the producer is the project company and a buyer of the resource known as Offtaker to sell and buy all future production of the project. The offtake agreements are negotiated before the development of the project, which is to become the possibility of production of funds sold under the agreement. When projects produce resources such as electricity or natural gas, offtake agreements are essential to their success. They provide a significant portion of future revenues and allow the project company to account for recurring sales and profits for many years to come. Taketake agreements are generally used to help the sales company acquire financing for future construction, expansion or new equipment projects by promising future revenues and demonstrating existing demand for goods. “The offtake agreement allows Offtaker to block a long-term supply;” In addition to the guarantee of supply, the buyer benefits from a guaranteed price.
The contract provides cover for future price increases; Protected from market bottlenecks because delivery is assured.